Effect of varying levels of acorn flour on antioxidant, staling and sensory properties of Iranian toast

Babak Mousavi, Sajad Ghaderi, Mohammad Ali Hesarinejad, Azizollah Pourmahmoudi


Due to the high level of antioxidant activity of acorn fruits, they can be used as an ingredient the production of functional foods. The goal of the this research was to partially substitute wheat flour with varying levels (10% - 50% w/w) of debittered acorn flour and to investigate its effects on the rheological characteristics of the dough, total phenolic content (TPC), staling, colour indices and sensory properties of toast bread. The farinograph degree of softening and water absorption of the dough decreased with increasing the acorn flour content, while the stability and time of development of the dough increased. Resistance and extensibility to deformation of the samples respectively increased and decreased compared to those of the control. Toast bread with 30% acorn flour replacement was observed to have lower staling than the control. The highest TPC (9.44 mg GAE/g) and the lowest peroxide value (0.36 m eq O2/kg) were obtained for the bread having 30% acorn flour substitution. Moreover, the breads showed darker crumbs with significantly lower specific loaf volumes. Overall, the bread with 30% of acorn flour substitution showed good rheological, staling properties and reasonable anti-oxidant content compared to the control bread as well as the highest sensorial acceptability.


Acorn; toast; antioxidant; staling

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