The impact of processing methods on chemical composition, mineral bioavailability and functional properties of Nigerian-grown cashew flour

Makinde Folasade Maria, Joel Ifeoluwa Hannah


In this study, the effect of processing methods on the nutritional quality and functional properties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn) kernels were investigated. The kernels were soaked, autoclaved, roasted or germinated at varying time duration; raw kernel served as control. The samples were analysed for chemical, mineral bioavailability and functional properties. Data was subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated by the Duncan multiple range test. The result of chemical composition analyses revealed that raw cashew kernels contained 3.55±0.08% moisture, 21.3±0.05% protein, 45.0±0.15% fat, 2.53±0.02% fibre, 1.59±0.02% ash, 26.1±0.01% carbohydrate, 521.75 Kcal/g energy, 2210.09±0.02mg/kg calcium, 1712.54±0.03mg/kg magnesium, 60.04±0.01 mg/kg iron and 36.74±0.02mg/kg zinc. Tannin, phytate and oxalate concentrations in the raw cashew kernel were 10.14±0.03 mg/kg, 99.30±0.02mg/kg and 11.03±0.03mg/kg respectively. Increased fat, ash and fibre levels were noted for treated samples compared to raw kernels. Mineral concentrations were increased significantly by various treatments compared to raw kernel; however, germination resulted in the highest increase of mineral content. A reduction trend was observed in phytate, oxalate and tannin concentrations in the treated samples with respect to increased processing time. Consequently, various treatments influenced the bioavailability of mineral elements. Treated samples exhibited significant differences in loose and packed bulk densities, water and oil absorption capacities when compared to raw kernels. Germination shows potential to generate not only much needed nutrients in cashew for human development, but also improved bioavailability of nutrients and functionality compared to other processing methods. This approach can used in Community Nutrition and Emergency Feeding Programmes, in developing countries, where the consequence of anti-nutritional factors may worsen the incidence of malnutrition and disease.



cashew; nutrient; mineral bioavailability; functionality; processing effects

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